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Science, Validation and References

Body composition analysis in older adults with dementia. Anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis: a critical review MAC Marti­n, B de Mateo Silleras… – European journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014

Conclusion – Using Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis errors are minimized, as there is no need for the subject to be normally hydrated and it does not require the use of predictive models

BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TECHNOLOGY FOR EVALUATING HUMAN BODY COMPOSITION PARAMETERS:“AN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC …R Subhedar, V Subhedar, P Dave, P Mishra, A Kaur – Int J Physiother Res, 2014

Conclusion -Thus, Bioelectrical Impedance method proved to be accurate, safe and simple technology in assessing body composition parameters and thereby analyzing physical fitness

Analysis of Body Composition: A Critical Review of the Use of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis MS Mialich, JMF Sicchieri… – International Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014 1-10

Conclusion – In general, multifrequency impedance does not improve the estimate of body composition compared to single-frequency impedance, but can provide an accurate and precise estimate of TBW and ECW

Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis:an update. Ward LC. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2012; 15 (5):424-9.

Conclusion – Segmental impedance, impedance approaches, provides indirect prediction of body composition whose accuracy is yet to achieve that of reference techniques

Low phase angle determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis is associated with malnutrition and nutritional risk at hospital admission. Kyle U, Genton L, Pichard C. Clinical Nutrition 2012; 1-6.

Conclusion – There is a significant association between low PhA and nutritional risk, LOS and non-survival. PhA is helpful to identify patients who are at nutritional risk at hospital admission in order to limit the number of in-depth nutritional assessments.

A comparison of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure total and segmental body composition in healthy young adults. Leahy S, O’Neill C, Sohun R, Jakeman P Eur J Appl Physiol 2012; 112: 589-95.

Conclusion – Though statistically significant, the small difference (~ 4%) between the methods indicates that the BIA may be used interchangeably with DXA in the measurement of appendicular fat free mass in healthy young adults.

Bioelectrical phase angle and impedance vector analysis e Clinical relevance and applicability of impedance parameters. Norman K, Stobäus N, Pirlich M, Bosy-Westphal A. Clinical Nutrition 2012; 1-8.

Mally, K, Dittmar M. Comparison of three segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance techniques in healthy adults. Annals of Human Biology 2012; Early Online: 1-11

Conclusion – After this review, we conclude that BIA is an important instrument for health professionals and that its use can provide safe data about body composition, in addition to complementary data about the clinical course of patients followed up on a medium- and long-term basis.

Bioelectric impedance phase angle is associated with hospital mortality of geriatric patients. Wirth R, Volkert D, Rosler A, Sieber CC, Bauer JM. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2010; 51: 290-4.

Conclusion – A significant difference of PA (50 kHz) between survivors (4.2±1.1°) and non-survivors (3.6±1.2°; p<0.001) of the hospital stay could be detected.

Estimation of segmental fat free mass in Taiwanese elderly females by bioelectrical impedance analysis with new mathematical model. Hsieh K, Kao M, Jang T et al. African Journal of Biotechnology 2011; 10 (75): 17339-46

Conclusion – After this review, we conclude that BIA is an important instrument for health professionals and that its use can provide safe data about body composition

Nayeli Macias, Heliodoro Alemán¬ Mateo, Julián Esparza¬ Romero and Mauro E Valencia (2007).Body fat measurement by bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography: a cross¬ validation study to design bioelectrical impedance equations in Mexican adults. Nutrition Journal, 6:18:10.2007 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov2007

Klauke S, Fischer H, Rieger A, Frühauf L, Staszewski S, Althoff PH, Helm EB (2005). Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine body composition changes in HIV¬ associated wasting.Int J STD AIDS. Apr;16(4):307¬-313.2005

Sun SS, Chumlea WC, Heymsfield SB, Lukaski HC, Schoeller D, Friedl K, Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, Johnson CL, Hubbard VS (2003). Development of bioelectrical impedance analysis prediction equations for body composition with the use of a multicomponent model for use in epidemiologic surveys. Am J ClinNutr.Feb;77(2):331-3¬40.2003

Lukaski, HC, Boloncguk, WW, Hall CB & Suders WA Validation of Tetrapolar Biolectrical Impedance Method to Assess Human Body Composition United States Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks Nutrition Research Center. J. Appl. Physiol. 60(4):1327-1332

NIH Consensus statement. Bioelectrical impedance analysis in body composition measurement. National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Conference Statement. December 12-14, 1994.

NIH Consensus statement. Bioelectrical impedance analysis in body composition measurement. National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Conference Statement. December 12-14, 1994.

Ellis J, et. al. Bioelectrical impedance methods in clinical research: a follow-up to the NIH technology assessment conference. Nutrition, Volume 15, Nos. 11/12, 1999

Lukaski HC. Methods for the assessment of human body composition: traditional and new. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1987; 46:537-56.

Lukaski HC, et al. Assessment of fat-free mass using bioelectrical impedance measurements of the human body. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, April 1985; 41:810-817.

Van Loan MD. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine fat-free mass, total body water and body fat. Sports Med. 10(4):205-217, 1990.

ADAMS, J.A. (1985) Ross Medical Publications. Symposium on human body composition.

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DURIN, J.U.G.A., WORMERSLY, J., (1974). Body fat assessment from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: Measurement of 481 men and women aged 16¬-72. BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, vol 32, 77¬-97.

GIRANDOLA, R.N., CONTARSY, S.A., WISWELL, R.A., ARTAL, R. MD, Algorithmic ElectroLipoGraphy. A simple and accurate method for the clinical diagnosis of obesity.

HARSHA, D.W., VOORS, A.W., BERENSON, G.S., (1978). Racial differences in subcutaneal fat patterns in children age 7¬-15. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, VOL 53, 333¬-337.

HARSHA, D.W., FREDRICKS, R., BENSON, G.S., (1978). Densitometry and anthropometry of blacks and whites. Human Biology, vol. 50, 261¬-280.